My investigation and common sense. If you are not able to think, analyze and draw conclusions do not read, do not get upset, take care of yourself read better fairy tales.
In 2000, a note by G.I. Nikonov, a senior lecturer of the metallurgy department of a Russian university, "Autotransformer - Generator" was published in the press.
The prototype was the publications in the materials of the conferences "Aluminum of the Urals"
The interest was fueled by those students who attended the classes of the "Ether" circle in 1999-2000 at UGTU-UPI.
The original version was intended for easy ignition of a low-voltage arc and to keep it burning in the absence of special coatings of any metal electrodes. The arc was indeed easily ignited if the electrodes were included in the gap between the choke [Dr] and the transformer [Tr] (see Fig. 1). The circuit depicted in the figure worked on the students' day "Tatiana's Day", January 25.
A battery of alkaline accumulators was used as a source of power supply or start-up, connected in parallel to the regulated rectifier. Two batteries supplied the multivibrator on transistors T1 and T2. Electrolytic capacitors C1 and C2 of 50-100 µF were used. As C3 - a battery of electrolytic capacitors, switched on counter-sequentially. The best results were obtained when the battery of capacitors, divided into two parts, was connected by the middle point to the middle point of transformer TR1. Thyristors T1, T2 were used of KU203B type, because they allow to have a short switching-off time (about 10 µsec) and, besides, they can be connected three pieces in parallel, which can give an operating current of 50 Amperes. They allowed to obtain in the winding in the winding of Tr1 a sawtooth current, linearly changing, and voltage of rectangular form. This is the most important thing here.
Then, when voltage is applied through capacitor C4, which has a capacitance of 5 µF (x650 volts), the autotransformer "Atr" type РН0-250-5 entered the auto-oscillating self-sustaining mode, which was achieved by moving both of its sliders connected with sliding roll contacts. The current initially consumed by "Atr" together with a 300 watt lamp Lamp1 connected to it was 2A. But after the excitation of the autotransformer was achieved, the current could be reduced to 0.1-0.2 Ampere (by raising up, up to failure, the upper slider of "Atr"). The fact that the lamp burns and the fact that the current drawn from Tr1 is significantly reduced, directly indicates that the ferromagnetic material of the core generates, although not very large, but significant electrical power. The frequency of linear current sawing is up to 400 Hz. The limitation is imposed due to the use of electrolytic capacitors. We warn those who would like to repeat the experiments that to reduce the probable destruction of capacitors due to outgassing, they should be used in the "C3" assembly at a voltage of 300-450 volts. After all, "electrolytic capacitors" do not always have the capacitance listed on their nameplate. They should be checked with an avometer (multimeter with capacitance measurement function). The protection of such capacitors is also checked (in the first experiments) with water poured into a vessel. Cooling occurs, but it is a loss of energy. It is better to choose "electrolyte" capacitors of the same capacitance. The idea was that, having an autotransformer-generator system, run it from the batteries, then the energy gain should be used both to charge the battery (possibly the starting battery) and to power a third-party load. The energy gain is explained not only by the rotation of permanent magnetic moments "packed" in metal domains, but also by the rotation of additional spins of particles rapidly appearing and disappearing near iron nuclei. A candidate for this role could be a heavy unstable "electron" called a muon. It can quickly arise due to the processes of weak interaction from pions "stuck" to iron nuclei from the physical vacuum in the presence of "helium4" microparticles in the iron lattice. Probably, Cioffi managed somehow to purify iron from impurities and get a giant magnetic permeability exceeding one millionth of a fraction. It is clear that such iron of a large degree of purification will not give an additional magnetic "echo" in the excitation winding. Therefore, iron ore - magnetite, having the formula Fe3O4, can also be used as a ferromagnetic material.
G.I. Nikonov, Senior Lecturer of the Department of Metal Science, UGTU-UPI Branch.
Let's omit the author's explanations about where the additional energy comes from, let's return to his scheme. According to the author's idea, the additional energy generated should be used to charge the starting battery and power the external load. Let us sketch this position schematically:
Looking at this combination, I immediately remembered a circuit for induction heating of metals (#1). If instead of an inductor, a choke with adjustable output to the load, similar to a laboratory autotransformer [LATR] (#2), then we get just the scheme of Grigory Nikonov.
In both combinations we have a series resonant LC circuit. It is hard to say how this increases the output power, but there is another very interesting inverter "LLC Resonant Converter" which also has a very similar conversion scheme:
The LLC converter is a resonant inverter with three reactive elements where the DC input voltage is turned into a square wave by a switch network arranged as either a half- or full-bridge to feed the resonant LLC tank that effectively filters out harmonics providing a sinusoidal like voltage and current waveform. This in turn feeds a transformer that provides voltage scaling and primary-secondary isolation. The converter power flow is controlled by modulating the square wave frequency with respect to the tank circuit's resonance. In an LLC resonant converter, all semiconductor switches are soft-switching, or zero-voltage switching (ZVS), at turn-on for the primary MOSFETs and zero-current switching (ZCS) at both turn-on and turn-off for the rectifiers in the secondary; resulting in low electro-magnetic emissions levels (EMI). In addition, it can enable a high degree of integration in the magnetic parts, enabling the design of converters with higher efficiency and power density.
Further exploration of possible implementations led me to Romanov's very interesting scheme .
Already in this circuit it can be seen that there is no ferromagnetic core in the resonant autotransformer L4 included in the main series resonant circuit L4, C3. Also added is a high-voltage resonant transformer based on Nikola Tesla C3, L2, spark gap, L3 (highlighted in green background). The resonant frequency of L2, L4 should be the same. One more resonant circuit L1, C2 excited by the ZVS driver from the starting battery sets the oscillatory process and injects energy into the system. Romanov states that the filter consisting of C1, DR1 is selected for the required frequency. In points A, B of the resonant inductance an element for power extraction is connected, putting the resonant inductance in the autogenerator mode. Then, according to the concept, the harvested power is directed to charge the battery and through the inverter to connect the payload. Absolutely identical concept proposed by Nikonov . The addition is the Tesla resonant transformer and the manufacture of resonant coils L2, L3, L4 without ferromagnetic core.
The topic is very interesting there is also a handyman "Electricworld" from Ukraine, who makes similar devices. I will not confirm or deny the operability of these devices, the only thing I will note is that with a possible actual increase in power, which can be taken from the resonant circuit to the load, this load must be constant. At change, disconnection and other delights on the calculated combination of power increase on load this effect will be immediately leveled. https://youtu.be/2sj7FHiXje8
There is another very interesting inventor of such technology - Donald Smith. I will not go into all of his variants, I was interested in only one of his devices, which overlaps with the ones we have discussed above. I took two schematics from his book "RESONANSE ENERGY METHODS", and compared them to the one we looked at above.
What do you think made me suspicious in these two seemingly identical schemes? I've highlighted what confused me in yellow.What do you think made me suspicious in these two seemingly identical schemes? I've highlighted what confused me in yellow.
In the two circuits of D. Smith, we formalize element 7 and 6a by analogy with the series resonant circuit and the autogenerator power take-off system, which we have considered above. After all, Smith has hidden something from us.
The continuation follows, I will complete the material and my thoughts on the subject.