вівторок, 14 листопада 2023 р.

Autotransformer - Generator


My investigation and common sense. If you are not able to think, analyze and draw conclusions do not read, do not get upset, take care of yourself read better fairy tales.  

In 2000, a note by G.I. Nikonov, a senior lecturer of the metallurgy department of a Russian university, "Autotransformer - Generator" was published in the press.


The readers' attention is offered a description of the device circuitry and supposed to start it from accumulators, an explanation of the device operation, which allows to power incandescent pamps from an autotransformer, introduced into self-sustained oscillatory mode by a special auto-oscillating circuit.
The prototype was the publications in the materials of the conferences "Aluminum of the Urals"
The interest was fueled by those students who attended the classes of the "Ether" circle in 1999-2000 at UGTU-UPI.

The original version was intended for easy ignition of a low-voltage arc and to keep it burning in the absence of special coatings of any metal electrodes. The arc was indeed easily ignited if the electrodes were included in the gap between the choke [Dr] and the transformer [Tr] (see Fig. 1). The circuit depicted in the figure worked on the students' day "Tatiana's Day", January 25.

A battery of alkaline accumulators was used as a source of power supply or start-up, connected in parallel to the regulated rectifier. Two batteries supplied the multivibrator on transistors T1 and T2. Electrolytic capacitors C1 and C2 of 50-100 µF were used. As C3 - a battery of electrolytic capacitors, switched on counter-sequentially. The best results were obtained when the battery of capacitors, divided into two parts, was connected by the middle point to the middle point of transformer TR1. Thyristors T1, T2 were used of KU203B type, because they allow to have a short switching-off time (about 10 µsec) and, besides, they can be connected three pieces in parallel, which can give an operating current of 50 Amperes. They allowed to obtain in the winding in the winding of Tr1 a sawtooth current, linearly changing, and voltage of rectangular form. This is the most important thing here

Then, when voltage is applied through capacitor C4, which has a capacitance of 5 µF (x650 volts), the autotransformer "Atr" type РН0-250-5 entered the auto-oscillating self-sustaining mode, which was achieved by moving both of its sliders connected with sliding roll contacts. The current initially consumed by "Atr" together with a 300 watt lamp Lamp1 connected to it was 2A. But after the excitation of the autotransformer was achieved, the current could be reduced to 0.1-0.2 Ampere (by raising up, up to failure, the upper slider of "Atr"). The fact that the lamp burns and the fact that the current drawn from Tr1 is significantly reduced, directly indicates that the ferromagnetic material of the core generates, although not very large, but significant electrical power. The frequency of linear current sawing is up to 400 Hz. The limitation is imposed due to the use of electrolytic capacitors. We warn those who would like to repeat the experiments that to reduce the probable destruction of capacitors due to outgassing, they should be used in the "C3" assembly at a voltage of 300-450 volts. After all, "electrolytic capacitors" do not always have the capacitance listed on their nameplate. They should be checked with an avometer (multimeter with capacitance measurement function).  The protection of such capacitors is also checked (in the first experiments) with water poured into a vessel. Cooling occurs, but it is a loss of energy. It is better to choose "electrolyte" capacitors of the same capacitance. The idea was that, having an autotransformer-generator system, run it from the batteries, then the energy gain should be used both to charge the battery (possibly the starting battery) and to power a third-party load. The energy gain is explained not only by the rotation of permanent magnetic moments "packed" in metal domains, but also by the rotation of additional spins of particles rapidly appearing and disappearing near iron nuclei. A candidate for this role could be a heavy unstable "electron" called a muon. It can quickly arise due to the processes of weak interaction from pions "stuck" to iron nuclei from the physical vacuum in the presence of "helium4" microparticles in the iron lattice. Probably, Cioffi managed somehow to purify iron from impurities and get a giant magnetic permeability exceeding one millionth of a fraction.  It is clear that such iron of a large degree of purification will not give an additional magnetic "echo" in the excitation winding. Therefore, iron ore - magnetite, having the formula Fe3O4, can also be used as a ferromagnetic material.

G.I. Nikonov, Senior Lecturer of the Department of Metal Science, UGTU-UPI Branch   


Let's omit the author's explanations about where the additional energy comes from, let's return to his scheme. According to the author's idea, the additional energy generated should be used to charge the starting battery and power the external load.  Let us sketch this position schematically: 

Looking at this combination, I immediately remembered a circuit for induction heating of metals (#1).  If instead of an inductor, a choke with adjustable output to the load, similar to a laboratory autotransformer [LATR] (#2), then we get just the scheme of Grigory Nikonov. 

In both combinations we have a series resonant LC circuit. It is hard to say how this increases the output power, but there is another very interesting inverter "LLC Resonant Converter" which also has a very similar conversion scheme:

The LLC converter is a resonant inverter with three reactive elements where the DC input voltage is turned into a square wave by a switch network arranged as either a half- or full-bridge to feed the resonant LLC tank that effectively filters out harmonics providing a sinusoidal like voltage and current waveform. This in turn feeds a transformer that provides voltage scaling and primary-secondary isolation. The converter power flow is controlled by modulating the square wave frequency with respect to the tank circuit's resonance.  In an LLC resonant converter, all semiconductor switches are soft-switching, or zero-voltage switching (ZVS), at turn-on for the primary MOSFETs and zero-current switching (ZCS) at both turn-on and turn-off for the rectifiers in the secondary; resulting in low electro-magnetic emissions levels (EMI). In addition, it can enable a high degree of integration in the magnetic parts, enabling the design of converters with higher efficiency and power density.

In this variant, in series with the series resonant circuit Lr, Cr, a transformer T1 and a choke Lm in parallel to the primary winding of the transformer are included in the selection system. In fact, the same combination as we have considered above, but there are significant differences. First, the primary winding of transformer T1 and the resonant inductance Lr do not have a common core, as in Nikonov's variant, using the resonant inductance and the selection circuit in the autotransformer mode. Second the reference oscillator has a variable switching system with a resonant chain (source plus and source minus) When switching to the source minus (galvanic part of the circuit) our whole chain is closed into a loop.  Whether this is important or not I cannot say, but you should probably pay attention to it.

Further exploration of possible implementations led me to Romanov's very interesting scheme [2012].


Romanov's video with this generator: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZRfWTlbFy1k

Already in this circuit it can be seen that there is no ferromagnetic core in the resonant autotransformer L4 included in the main series resonant circuit L4, C3. Also added is a high-voltage resonant transformer based on Nikola Tesla C3, L2, spark gap, L3 (highlighted in green background). The resonant frequency of L2, L4 should be the same.   One more resonant circuit L1, C2 excited by the ZVS driver from the starting battery sets the oscillatory process and injects energy into the system. Romanov states that the filter consisting of C1, DR1 is selected for the required frequency.  In points A, B of the resonant inductance an element for power extraction is connected, putting the resonant inductance in the autogenerator mode.  Then, according to the concept, the harvested power is directed to charge the battery and through the inverter to connect the payload. Absolutely identical concept proposed by Nikonov [2000]. The addition is the Tesla resonant transformer and the manufacture of resonant coils L2, L3, L4 without ferromagnetic core. 


The topic is very interesting there is also a handyman "Electricworld" from Ukraine, who makes similar devices. I will not confirm or deny the operability of these devices, the only thing I will note is that with a possible actual increase in power, which can be taken from the resonant circuit to the load, this load must be constant. At change, disconnection and other delights on the calculated combination of power increase on load this effect will be immediately leveled. https://youtu.be/2sj7FHiXje8


There is another very interesting inventor of such technology - Donald Smith. I will not go into all of his variants, I was interested in only one of his devices, which overlaps with the ones we have discussed above. I took two schematics from his book "RESONANSE ENERGY METHODS", and compared them to the one we looked at above. 

What do you think made me suspicious in these two seemingly identical schemes? I've highlighted what confused me in yellow.What do you think made me suspicious in these two seemingly identical schemes? I've highlighted what confused me in yellow.  

In the two circuits of D. Smith, we formalize element 7 and 6a by analogy with the series resonant circuit and the autogenerator power take-off system, which we have considered above. After all, Smith has hidden something from us.

Figure # A shows the solution of power take-off through a resonant autotransformer with inductance Lr, Figure # B shows a variant of power take-off through a two-winding transformer. Both variants exist in practice with resonant converters. You will say that Smith's is different, to which I will reply that he has everything in blocks, which is well used to hide circuit features. I followed the logic and rules of practice for the power resonant circuit used in induction power circuits.    

The question arises whether it is possible to make this scheme simpler.  Let's return to Nikonov's original scheme. The DC/AC inverter signal generator is a multivibrator only on thyristors, in fact a ZVS driver, which is used to swing similar circuits. 

In this video [ https://youtu.be/yKjgMmZcFA0 ] the guy shows just this driver in the pumping mode of the resonant converter. The feature of the driver adjusts to the frequency if the inductance parameter of the resonant circuit is changed. This is the reason why it is often used in simple induction heaters, the second reason is simplicity. Also in the video, the guy demonstrates a traditional secondary circuit for a resonant converter in the traditional parallel resonant circuit mode. 

How this task is handled by appropriately qualified engineers. You will be surprised but we see the same solution, switching the energy transfer to the pickup circuit while maintaining resonance in the secondary circuit. 

But traditionally, as in all the variants discussed earlier, the resonant circuit is not used in the secondary circuit, in power take-off.  

A pattern emerged in my mind that is worth checking out, see the picture below:

In this variant, the tuning is the PUSH PUL circuit of the driver, which swings the parallel resonant circuit L1Cr. The winding of L1 can be made on a ferrite ring, through the hole of which the wire of the main resonant circuit is led out.  The main series resonant circuit is made according to the classical method of induction heaters, with the addition of the primary winding of an air transformer, which can be made on a system of flat coils.  In the secondary we have another series resonant circuit similar to the main one. 
Researcher Andriy Mishchuk and his experiments with resonant circuits based on "ZVS-driver" (Zero Voltage Switching) and current transformer pickup. According to my calculations he has about 30A-35A in the resonant circuit, consumption 4A.

"If you use an active load directly to the current transformer located on the wire coming from the capacitor, the consumption of the circuit from the source increases by a value comparable to the capacity of the load (lamp). The connection scheme was revised and one more ferrite ring (one more current transformer) was added.
In this case, the power consumption of three 12V/24W lamps does not affect the power consumption of the resonant circuit. The current consumption is 4 Ampere, both at no load and at connection of three lamps of the specified power. The lamps shine at full intensity. At connection of each next lamp, the brightness of the previous one changes insignificantly, the current consumption of the resonant circuit remains at the level of 4 Amperes."

Unfortunately, the author did not analyze the possibilities. The following questions remain unclear: what is the current in the resonant circuit; what is the power consumption of the circuit?  

The power of the connected lamps will be without heating: 24W*3=72W.
Let's assume that Andrew's power source was a 12V battery: 12V*4A=48V,(efficiency-1.5).
If the battery power supply is 24V, then 24V*4A=96W (efficiency-0.75). 

But we don't know what load we can connect.


Another idea has arisen, which I will present later, after verification.

The continuation follows, I will complete the material and my thoughts on the subject.


З повагою, Серж Ракарський!
Слава Україні, Героям Слава!


пʼятницю, 14 липня 2023 р.

The mystery of the Kapanadze generator


In this material, a little history from the author himself, and my version of the device of the inventor of the converter with the effect of increasing the output power.

Inventor Tariel Kapanadze, originally from Tbilisi, Georgia, has invented a free energy generator.


This is the full ( longer)  version of the  Kapanadze 28th of April 2004 free energy coil device demonstration to some friends and observers at the Kapanadze home.

* * *

Famous Interview with Kapanadze:

The whole space is a potential field, says Tariel Kapanadze, I have found the key to get energy, energy is also here near us in space, you just need to open it, and to get this energy you need an impulse. Recently I powered it with a 9 volt battery and after a while the device started to work, after that it powers itself, in working mode I was able to achieve up to 150 kilowatts of energy, but it is possible to complicate the process and take more energy!

- This box? - Yes. This is where I concentrate the energy that I get from space.

- Can you say we get this energy from the air? - It's an ether-dynamic process. In his time Einstein denied the existence of ether, later scientists were forced to verify its existence in space, and a new direction in physics appeared - etherdynamics. The process of getting energy from space, one of the main things in ether dynamics.

- So space, a spark and a secret method, and you can get alternative energy. Yes? - I can't say anything very precise, it's a trade secret, and I've already had a lot of opposition, they've tried to steal the idea.

- Who is interested in this? - Here (in Georgia) I could not interest anyone and went to Turkey, and there I patented my generator, then I signed a contract with the Turks, they were to make a 10 megawatt power plant, I started working, and at that time a certain Mindeli showed up and said, I also know about this secret.... It took a lot of money and nerves to fight him. I went back to Georgia, and Mindeli is sitting in Turkey thinking how to get energy from space. The Turks started contacting me again, but I don't want to look there anymore.


- Apart from the Turks, no one else is interested in your invention? - Yes of course, recently European and Western experts have become interested, recently I made a transportation version of my apparatus, there was a presentation that took place on Patriarchal TV, there were 3-4 experts from Europe who made sure that the apparatus is real. The Patriarch of All Georgia has a desire to keep this invention in Georgia, I also wanted Georgia to get a good profit, but the government is not paying any attention.

- If your invention is implemented, what will be the consequences? - First of all, the function will be lost by "telas" (energy com): the main principle is that you take as much energy as you want, every person will be able to install this device in an apartment or in the entrance. The only thing you need is wiring and quality parts.

- The government is not interested, you say? - In 2003, Mikhail Saakashvili and Zurab Zhvania came to my house, the whole neighborhood was cut off from electricity, to check the effectiveness of my invention, I turned on the TV and one light bulb. On the second day Adjara news started, and today nobody is interested...

- Mr. Tariel, are you a physicist by profession? - I only studied physics at school. I am an architect by profession, God brought me to this road, when people ask me how the idea was born, I answer that it was not mine, but Nikola Tesla's, there was a Serbian scientist who lived and worked in America.

- What can you say about your plans for the future? - Recently I told an employee of the company "VESTEL", give me one piece of equipment each: a washing machine, refrigerator, air conditioner and others, and in the near future I will return them so that the plug will not be needed. I can install my own power supply inside on such appliances, which will make it work and run. So future plans are not up to me. In a few days I am going to meet with Patriarch, my wish is the idea to stay here, but from abroad there are offers too, if nobody is interested here, I will go to cooperate with automobile, sea, railway air transport, I want to create a laboratory, today is the age of knowledge and information, if anyone can win, it is the mind, and God gave us the mind, let's see what will happen in the future.

* * *

Tariel Kapanadze generator 2kWt Aquarium2 2012 - YouTube

Patent WO2008103130A1, 2008-08-28, "Energy transformer"

Classification: H02M11/00 Energy conversion systems not included in previous groups

Scheme and name of elements of Kapanadze converter from the patent. As we can see, in the power circuit connected to the baffle (13) there is a transformer converter (7 - primary winding; 8 - secondary winding) and element (9) named as "current amplifier".

There are no more schemes, clarifying the operation of the Kapanadze converter circuit.  Of all the explanations, which in my opinion are worthy of attention, is the comparison with the scheme of a welding machine, which was designed by Anatoly Pavlovich Budenny back in 1990 (Soviet Union). 

Anatoly Pavlovich has two patents for similar designs. SU1839648A3 - 1990-93, and RU2198078C1 - 2001-2003.  The 1990 patent is closer to the engineering solution displayed on the slide above, titled "Budenny's Welding Machine".

We take and disassemble the power part of the circuit, which is shown on the slide "Budenniy's welding machine" in comparison with Kapanadze's converter block circuit.

In blue I have shown a step-down transformer with primary winding (7) and secondary winding (8). The transformer (9) which is included in the power circuit. with its output winding in series with the output winding of the step-down transformer (7/9) can be referred to the element which is named in the Kapanadhe patent as "current amplifier-9". 

The elements A, B, C which supply high voltage to the primary winding of the transformer (9) through the arrester can be attributed to Nikola Tesla's resonant transformer system. The high-voltage system in Kapanadze's panette is not revealed, but it is there and the vasovoltage discharge in the system is demonstrated in all episodes. 

Let us draw a circuit diagram of such a converter. It will consist of an AC voltage source, step-down transformer (7/8), rectifier diode bridge, device (9) and a high voltage source with an arrester for switching with device (9). 

The principle of operation of all elements is clear to us, the question remains how the complete circuit with element (9) is switched and operates.  From the point of view of the rules of connection of voltage sources in the circuit with the load, in this variant the series connection (#2) is made.

In the practice of electrical engineering, series connection of current and voltage sources provides the result, with their identical characteristics. Complex switching of parallel and series connections is used to form accumulator batteries. There are also solutions where inverter-type current sources with constant current output are used in series connection. In any case, all sources must have similar characteristics. When inverters are connected, the output voltage increases, but the current in the circuit is not summed and is equal to the current strength of one element. The summation of the resulting figure will correspond to a conversion balance that will be < 1.

How does the current increase in the Kapanadze-Budenny scheme occur?

Let's consider how electric circuits work, with the formation of current force in the circuit. In general, what is current force? With my version of this phenomenon, you can familiarize yourself in the publication "EMF and CURRENT". 

Based on Ohm's Law, Current is equal to Voltage divided by Resistance: [I=U/R].
If you connect a battery to a light bulb, and measure all the parameters of the action, you will get this expression. This is superficial knowledge, to form the current in a circuit with a light bulb, the electric field must be converted into a magnetic field, which is the current we measure in Amperes. The formula for voltage drop takes the form: [Ui=IR].  Science, by the way. this missing voltage or EMF is attributed to the action of external forces, in a battery it is a chemical reaction that constantly replenishes the electric field to maintain this potential difference. 

When the current is flowing, there is a continuous loss of charges, or rather neutralization of positive and negative electricity. In order for the field strength "E" and with it the electric current density "j" to remain unchanged, some additional forces or processes are needed that continuously replenish electric charges.

The general formula for a complete circuit is: [I = E / (R + r)], and the Ohm's Law condition [I=U / R] must be satisfied, for a load with resistance [R]. 

The complete formula will be:
I = (E - U) / (R + r), where the condition must be satisfied:  [E - U] = [Ui = I (R + r)].

How to calculate the current in wind turbines, in which the voltage from the phases is rectified and the load is a chargeable battery. 
I = (E - U) / (R + r0)
E is the no-load voltage and the total EMF; U is the Battery voltage; R is the resistance of the generator phase windings; r0 is the internal resistance of the Battery (usually 0.02 Ohm). 
The expression (E - U =) Ui is the value of the voltage drop, to the value of the voltage at the battery terminals. 
If: E - 60 Volts; U - 24 Volts; R - 5 Ohm; r0 - 0.02 Ohm
I = (E - U) / (R + r0) = (60 - 24) / (5 + 0.02) = 7.17 A
Power from the battery: 24V * 7,17 A = 172 W. 

Thus, the current in a circuit whose voltage source is an electromagnetic generator is calculated. There remains the question of series current flow in a circuit with series connection of different sources. Just in this variant the total current will flow, only through the conductor of the element (9) and the load. In the winding (8) the current may not flow at all, but only a small part of it. All the current will go through the diodes of the diode bridge. 

Thus we conclude that the principle of operation of the converter as an electromagnetic generator, the source of added EMF is a high-voltage source, which is introduced into the circuit through the element (9). 

The secret of operation of Kapanadze's generator is in the device and principle of operation of this 9 element, designated as "current amplifier". 


If you want to build a similar generator, you need to find your own solution about the arrangement of element (9) in Tariel Kapanadze's circuit, or the volt-additive transformer, in Anatoly Budyonny's circuit.

A few of my observations. At first glance, it's simple. Unfortunately, it's not.  We have two sources of EMF connected in series. The first source is a traditional transformer, in which the transformation is the mutual induction between the conductors, which is calculated by the volt-turn system. The second source should be of generator type, in which the drop of EMF should occur to the nudy or more EMF shoved into it. In fact, the second source is a converter, the principle of operation of which is not disclosed by the authors. 
My opinion is that this converter is a kind of dynamic device of electrostatic induction on the conductor passing through it. If, in the law of electrostatic induction, EMF occurs when the magnetic field around the conductor changes (more precisely, when the conductor is in the focus of the changing circular magnetic flux), the EMF in this case is calculated by a formula called transformer EMF: 
E = 1/√2 * 2π * ϕ * f 
In reality, in a transformer this formula does not work, the secondary winding is completely at the mercy of the electric field of the primary winding. I have been convinced of this many times, working on various ways to build a static electromagnetic generator. 

The second source of voltage in the circuit called "current amplifier" is probably a very advanced device, in which the EMF of a third-party source can be transferred to the conductor included in the load circuit, without the influence of the primary circuit current, or discharge the third-party capacitance, forming a vortex electric field around this conductor at a given site. 

I think this is the point of Kapanadze's and Budyonny's methods of increasing the current in the load circuit. 
Let's try to model a simple construction according to Anatoly Budyonny's variant. Let's take the idea of a simple Tesla transformer from the people on available elements.

The Tesla transformer circuit shown below is based on 2 ignition coils.

So, the presented Tesla transformer consists of the following main parts:

    • Tr1 - step-down, (TC-180-2), which I took from an old tube TV.
    • Transformer Tr2 - ignition coil (any coil).
    • Transformer Tr3 - also an ignition coil (any).
    • Capacitor at 6.3kV, 2200pF.

The capacitor used were 3 pieces that were connected in parallel that they became like one capacitor at 18.9kV, 6600pF.

To fulfill our task we need to change only the element after the arrester, Element No. 9 in the circuit of the block circuit of the converter Kapanadze, or the transformer volt additive in the circuit of the welding machine Budyonny. 

Let's consider this element, according to the description from the slide of Budyonny's welding machine: Ferrite ring 1500НM, 40x25x11, 10 pcs; Secondary winding (w2) is a bundle of 7 wires in varnish, diameter 1,25 mm, hidden in a tepproizolyatsionnaya mounting tube, pulled through the hole of the ferrite ring; Primary winding (w1) is 8 turns of mounting wire (probably 1,5 mm² in insulation, my note).

It resembles the device of the measuring current transformer of electric circuits, only applied in reverse transforming action, the high voltage pulse is fed into the winding of 8 turns (traditionally it is a multi-winding system of measuring circuit). The transforming action is 8:1 step-down.    . 

Thus, the conductor section of 7 wires (diameter 1.25 mm) is energized by the step-down pulse. Let us assume that the maximum pulse is 4000 V.  

                           The value of 1 volt - turns will be 4000 V / 8 coils = 500 V. 

The voltage across the seven-conductor bundle inside the ferrite rings is 500V. Here is a theoretically additional source of electric field potential difference with practically zero internal resistance. 

We simulate our circuit, based on the initial values for the current calculation:

We get two circuits sharing a common section through an additive source of EMF [U2] and load resistance [Rload].  

I = 0.5*(U1+U2) / (R1 + Rload] ) = 0.5 * (12+500) / (48.3 + 0) =  5.3 A.
Voltage [U] at the load terminals, approx. [230-250V]  ≈  240V

P = IU = 5.3A * 240V = 1270 W (1.27 kW) 

Naturally, the source U2 will operate with increased frequency and the voltage value will change, applying a power factor of 0.55 for example, we get: 

                         P = IU = 5.3A * 240V = 1270 W (1.27 kW) * 0,55 = 698 (0,7 kW)

How realistic our assumptions are can only be verified by a practical test.

To simplify the understanding and design, I have simplified the circuit to pulse load control unit mode.  The main circuit, consists of a constant voltage source, the battery, which has a voltage of 12.8-13.8V at its electrodes. This first voltage is U1. Next, the power circuit has a load R(ohm). This load will be rated at 300W, for a voltage of 220V:
I = P/U = 300W / 220V = 1.36A ; R = U/I = 220V / 1.36A = 161.7 ohms. 

Further power circuit, has a key in the form of a power transistor BT1, which is controlled by a pulse generator. 

Let's assume that the set frequency will be 200 Hz, the rate of 70%. 
At work of the key, closing the voltage of potential difference of the battery 13,5 V, on the load 161,7 Ohm, we will get the following current value:

I = U/R = 13.5 V / 161.7 ohm = 0.083 A.

In this variant, the load will not receive the necessary value of current strength to form a pulse of electromagnetic radiation, in the form of a vortex magnetic field or infrared radiation. To solve the problem of increasing the current in the circuit, we need to increase the voltage in the circuit. 
We can put some more ammunition in series: 220V / 13V = 16.9V.  We will need, for voltage 220V, to connect in series 17 accumulators of the corresponding capacity, which will provide us with the operation of the current for a limited period of time, according to the consumption of the chemical reaction occurring in the accumulator to maintain the production of external EMF, which will be converted into current (vortex electromagnetic field). 

Let's try to solve this problem in a different way, using a high-voltage voltage source. Let's focus on one of the variants of Nikola Tesla's resonant transformer. (There are other variants besides the Tesla transformer), but I will consider the Tesla transformer, with buffer capacitor and spark gap, variant #2.

The main unit of the Tesla transformer is two coils from a high-voltage transformer from an AC source of high frequency, the output winding leads of which are shorted to a high-voltage capacitor. A low impedance winding is connected to the leads of the capacitor. In the circuit of this connection, a spark gap is included, which acts as a pulse key, through which the circuit of the low-resistance winding and the condenser is closed. The spark gap closes and opens when the corresponding potential difference at the terminals of the capacitor is reached. After the voltage drops to the appropriate level on the capacitor, the spark gap is deactivated and the capacitor continues to be charged from the output winding of the high voltage transformer.  This is the pulse operation of a Tesla resonant transformer with a minimum number of elements. 

Organize the work of the primary high-voltage transformer, it is possible through the system of blocking generator. such variants are also not new in circuitry. The scheme will look like this:

How to make a more powerful high voltage unit can be seen on this resource: http://boginjr.com/electronics/hv/flyback-driver-2/

It remains to disassemble design #9, which we have defined as a "current amplifier", more specifically a pulse step-down transformer. If we consider the operation of the transformer, all the turns that are outside the core window have a parasitic effect of field dissipation.
In order to avoid this unpleasant moment as much as possible, I propose an appropriate design of this converter.

We divide the ferrite rings into two parts. Place two assemblies of ferrite rings in parallel with a small gap between them. The primary winding is wound in both holes, resulting in two independent magnetic systems with a high-voltage wire inside the rings. The power harness is also threaded inside the ferrite rings as shown in the figure. 
It is necessary to provide insulation between the windings and between the wires and the ferrite rings. On the outside of the ferrite rings, make a small saw cut to avoid complete magnetic saturation before the time.  All that remains is to assemble and test it in practice.

There are two points here, first, if element #9 works as a transformer, the direction of the power core current in it, will have a vector opposite to the power current of the circuit with load, the circuit will simply disconnect from the starting battery, and the second source will work as a limiter. The windings of a Tesla resonant transformer must have a minimum current even at the calculated voltage across the turns. In this case, the voltage across the turns will act as an additional voltage source in the circuit, and the current in the circuit will match the load. In this case, inverter #9 will work as a generator.

Current limitation in the winding (w1) can be realized through small capacitance of the capacitor and very large resistance of the high-voltage winding. 

To match the currents, starting inverter No. 9 as a current generator, the initial primary circuit current from the source (voltage generator U1) through the secondary load circuit of inverter No. 9 (13) must be greater than the sum of the inverter winding turn currents (w1). This current can be made constant at all, without pulse switching. In this case, the occurrence of power current from the sum of voltages in the power circuit will be many times greater than the winding current (w1), which gives hope that the idea will work and inverter No. 9 will work as a generator of current in the power circuit, due to the voltage drop.

Why I operate with concepts such as "current generator" and "voltage generator". ( www.quora.com ) You need precise knowledge and definitions to design and calculate circuits.  A current generator (modern inductive sources such as a synchronous generator) must convert voltage into current (let's call this action absorption of the resulting EMF) to produce current in a circuit. A voltage generator (modern electrochemical devices such as batteries and accumulators, etc.) to produce the corresponding current in the circuit must produce additional EMF to hold the corresponding potential difference at the terminals of the "generator" (let's call this action EMF production).
In my proposed circuit, by analogy with Kapanadze's and Budyonny's circuits, I have placed two different sources in series - a voltage generator and a current generator. To get the expected effect, element 9 must be used as a current generator, avoiding its use as a transformer.  
Actually, the name in Kapanadze's patent "Current Amplifier" is identical to the name "Current Generator" by the nature of its operation in a circuit with a load.
So, all the elements have been disassembled, all that remains is to test it!

We have considered the volt-ampere circuit of Budyonny's welding machine, assuming that Kapanadze's generator can be made according to a similar algorithm.

In fact, the design of element #9, in Karanadze's Generator has its own engineering solution, which is revolutionary in power engineering.  There are no reliable sources that reveal the design features of his "Current Amplifier (Generator)". There is only a handwritten drawing allegedly made with Kapanadze's participation to explain this device. 

There is another Kapanadze patent, where he probably discloses the principle of operation of his "Current Amplifier #9"  WO 2008/103129 A1 "INDEPENDENT ENERGY DEVICE"  [PDF].

The autonomous energy device improved in accordance with the present invention starts operating with initial electrical energy obtained from a source of initial energy (15) and subsequently successively generates energy and is characterized in that it comprises a power switch (1), a capacitor (2), points (3), a high frequency generator (4), first filter (5), first spool (6), first frequency controller (7), second filter (8), frequency stabilizer (controller) (9), second spool (10), second frequency controller (11), output (phase) (positive) (12), positive self-power cable (12a), output (neutral) (13), negative self-power cable (13a), neutral (ground) (14), source of source energy (15).

I think that my thoughts and fantasies of an engineer about how Kapanadze's generator is arranged are very close to reality. The operation of the element "Current Amplifier No. 9" is disclosed in another patent, where we have two coils - primary (6) with high voltage, which is regulated through a spark gap (7), and secondary (10), included in the power circuit. In the patent, the connection of the primary power circuit and the "current amplifier" secondary coil (10) is parallel. I in the diagram, on the blue background placed them in series, according to the second patent.  The principle of operation of the element, the current generator by converting the EMF of the high-voltage voltage source and focusing it on the conductor of the power circuit, the coil (10), into a magnetic vortex field, which is essentially the current force.

If you still have doubts, let's analyze the block diagram of the Kapanadze converter for elementary correspondence of closed circuits: 

First in the block diagram there is no AC circuit, there is only a clear position that the element of the Tesla resonant transformer (2,6,7) is a pulse system in a DC circuit controlled by a key (arrester -7). The power circuit is not shown in its entirety, but only the output power winding of the converter (10) connected by one terminal to ground, the second terminal is labeled (positive phase output). We will correct, or rather complete the missing circuit element.  Probably the term "phase" played a cruel joke with researchers. If the power phase has an AC winding in series in the circuit, then the operation of the primary circuit in this converter, will be active only one half-wave of the full sinusoid of the alternating current.  This option is not excluded either.

I found a similar material to my analysis: "Let's talk about Kapanadze's generator? In the footsteps of Budyonny and Kapanadze...". I am not the first who pays attention to such a variant of transformation. 

As for the primary winding of the TR, there is a varistor on it. I thought for a long time, why should I protect the transformer from the 220 network with a varistor? It turns out to be the other way around, the varistor protects the network, not the transformer from impulse surges in the secondary, and as a consequence, the primary winding. Hence the name "Inertial".

The author of this material, concludes (http://vladimir-z.at.ua/_ld/0/98____.pdf)  :

In fact, Kapanadze "invented" the current transformer! This can be seen in the example of a 100 kW plant. And in others as well. In some parts of his "transformer" coil he used Tesla's transformer as an idea. Maybe that's why Kapanadze keeps his secret, because everything was very simple! After all, there is no invention, everything has been known for a long time! Does this scheme violate the law of conservation of energy?! I DON'T KNOW! After all, it is possible to transmit high-potential power in small fractions, but the output is the same. It remains a mystery how a spark discharge works. In fact, it is an electromagnetic pulse with a large range of frequencies!

Analyzing the operation of transformers and electromagnetic synchronous generators I found a significant difference in the principle of operation.  Kapanadze realized a way to bring the transformer from the mode of intercurrent mutual induction to the mode of electromagnetic generation. It is this action that I explain the effect of energy multiplication through the amplifier/current generator in his circuit. 

There is another version of how Kapanadze's current amplifier is organized. We will look into a textbook on electricity of the late 19th century/early 20th century. We will find a drawing and a description of an interesting experiment:

I will not comment on this combination, I have used a similar combination in pulse motors, over the main winding I wove a winding with a large number of turns and switched in such a way that the arising current from the transformation pulse amplified the current of the main winding. 

"The winding L2 has a larger number of turns than L1. Diode D2 cuts off the return current to the source, and diode D1 prevents current from the source from flowing through L2. When current from the source enters the circuit, L1 is excited by the current from the source, such as a voltage U with a current of 1A, a mutual induction voltage of 1.3-1.5 U and a current of 0.5A is induced in coil L2. Thus, the current flowing from coil L2 passes through L1, the currents of 1A and 0.5A are summed up, resulting in 1.5A.  So the magnetic flux in the core will increase and the current from the source will be 1A." 
The circuit [# K] with H-bridge allows to realize current amplification in practice. 

Thus, based on the spark power on Kapanadze's device I do not think that this combination can be used. At the same time, the figure from the textbook is equipped with a spark quenching system, which indicates the power of this spark.
I hope my material and analysis was useful to you, I wish you good luck in realizing a similar device.

Serge Rakarskiy

Glory to Ukraine! Glory to Heroes!

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