понеділок, 22 лютого 2021 р.

Mystery - Nikola Tesla's Electric Car

I want to notice right now, everything that I present in this article, just my point of view on the subject.

The source of information, The Morning Dallas News, reported: “With the support of Pierce-Arrow Co. and General Electric in 1931, Tesla removed the gasoline engine from the new Pierce-Arrow car and replaced it with a standard 80 hp AC electric motor. (1800 rpm), without any traditionally known external power supplies. At a local radio store, he bought 12 vacuum tubes, some wires, a handful of different resistors, and put the whole thing in a box 60 cm long, 30 cm wide, and 15 cm high, with a pair of 7.5 cm long rods sticking out from the outside. Reinforcing the box behind the driver's seat, he extended the rods and announced, "Now we have energy." After that he drove the car for a week, driving it at speeds up to 150 km / h. "

The "Pierce-Arrow" car, on which Tesla installed an electric motor, instead of an internal combustion engine and a "wonderful box". Apart from the press in this newspaper about this episode, there is no evidence available for analysis. 

From an engineer's point of view, installing an AC motor on an electric vehicle requires a serious piece of equipment called an AC motor controller. Well, let's try to approach it from an engineering point of view. The ratio of hp = kW (1 HP = 0.78 electrical kilowatts) respectively 80 l / s = 58.8 kW

Let's find at least an approximate analogy of such a motor for an electric car. The Chinese offer such.

The controller for such a motor is a complex semiconductor power switching device. and the voltage and current ratings for this power are impressive.

Controlling an asynchronous motor in a vehicle driving mode is a very difficult engineering task, while such a solution became possible with the introduction of semiconductors, which replaced the ubiquitous resistor controllers and the used electrical machine converters Umformer /Converter from German/ (Rotary converter) (Umformer is a single-arm low-voltage DC-to-DC or AC-high stresses) /Electrical Machine Current Converters/   Mechanical commutation matrixer commutators for conventional DC and AC magneto-mechano-dynamical electrical machines - Book chapter - IOPscience

I suppose the engineer, just side-stories about 80 hp. and the AC motor, which can so easily be hoisted instead of the internal combustion engine, will be discarded.

Let's digress a little. There is a story that after the Second World War, two American soldiers smuggled to the United States a device resembling an umformer, which they found in the basement of a German house, which was used as an emergency light, without a self-rotating battery, giving out voltage and current for an electric light bulb. John Bedini also got acquainted with this design. Perhaps it was this acquaintance that determined a radio engineer with a good production of audio systems to deal with Free Energy devices.

My story. After high school in 1982, before being drafted into the army, I worked for a year as a car electrical repairman in a trucking company. We had a WWII veteran in our shop, a local innovator. He said that already at the end of the war, after the surrender of Hitler's Germany, in Austria, they captured the Abwehr reconnaissance group. They had a radio station with an umformer, which was launched from a cable and powered the radio station without a battery. Of course, no one believed in this story and they laughed at him slightly, writing off the strangeness of the old man. He was making something. Now I can understand what was trying to build, this veteran.

The third story is not mine ... about how one electrical engineer in 1945, took part in the ferry from an underground dock in the Baltic, to be loaded onto a ship, a German single-seat electric combat submarine. And he assured that the electric motor received an electric current from the generator, which rotated itself. These are three interesting episodes from the past of German scientific and technical thought.

We may or may not believe these stories, but they exist.

And so we return to Nikola Tesla. At the end of the 19th century, at the American Institute of Electrical Engineers at Columbia College, May 20, 1891, he demonstrated an electric machine single-arm converter (motor dynamo) with impressive performance.

Tesla knew these devices very well and has a good portfolio of patents for these devices.

Let's look at another example. At the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the twentieth century, it was electric cars that were widespread in the United States.

For example, Patent US1423090 for a 1922 electric vehicle of the United States.

As an engineering solution, elegant and balanced. The heart of the electric vehicle was a DC collector motor, which was controlled through a resistive controller (used in electric vehicles until the advent of semiconductor devices). There was even regenerative braking.

Suppose that Nikola Tesla, instead of a DC motor, installs his own dynamo motor on an existing electric vehicle and receives a controlled torque on the shaft and alternating current on removable rings.

He lacks a mere trifle, a rectifying charger. Which he could assemble according to the principle of a one-period regulator, based on Fleming gates and the principle of a magnetic amplifier (a magnetic amplifier is a power control device in AC circuits)

With a little analysis, it becomes a very real and possible picture of the possible design of Tesla's electric vehicle. The question remains, why Tesla made a self-charging electric car and why he destroyed it, we do not know. Suppose he needed money for his research. He quickly found them at the rising oil lobby.

Now the continuation of the story:

In October 1975, California-based inventor Robert Alexander introduced an improved powertrain for the car. As conceived by the inventor, such an electric drive was supposed to save car owners in the near future from the need to use burnt fuel, from unnecessary noise and from the need to constantly recharge the batteries.

The specialists who arrived at the demonstration were greatly puzzled, because it seemed that the energy comes "from nothing." However, the car drove easily without fuel at 36 miles per hour. To the doubts of the experts, the inventor replied that the car was driving, and her arguments were not interested. Initial power was provided by a converted 7/8 horsepower electric motor.

The electric motor has been redesigned to deliver 12 volts, otherwise the power output would be too much. Robert's sons and partner James Smith repaired the car in 45 days to demonstrate fuel and pollution-free driving.

The press was invited to the demonstration, and later (when patent US3913004 had already been received) one of the journalists was told the details of the project: the rotation of the electric motor starts from the battery, the hydraulic and air systems of the car. take effect until the battery has time to be charged from the generator. Alexander spent only $ 500 on this alteration.

Alexander and Smith were unable to fully explain how this energy is obtained from "nothing", however, they noted that people have long been able to do much more than they know and understand, and go far to find unnecessary examples - just look on this car that drives. The inventors called the demonstrated phenomenon “superpower” because it uses three types of energy to achieve this goal.

The design is based on a transformer (converter), which is also the rotor of a generator (crossed by a magnetic flux). The AC output is the result of two electromagnetic influences. Recall that the rate of change of acceleration - the third derivative of the coordinate - is a jerk.

The rotor is a transformer core and has a group of paired windings. Each section of the rotor has two windings, one of which works as the primary winding of the transformer and as the motor winding, and the other as the secondary winding of the transformer and as the generator winding. In this case, only permanent magnets are located on the stator.

The generator uses well-known technologies for controlling and interacting with a magnetic field. The converted and generated power are synchronously combined, resulting in increased output power.

The primary windings contain fewer turns than the secondary windings, in which, when the magnetic field lines are crossed, a larger EMF is induced than that of a direct current source (which is a battery). The stator magnetic field crosses the rotor and causes it to move, generating energy in the secondary windings.

The output alternating current in the secondary windings is inherently a synchronized function of the converted energy from the primary windings, combined in the common slots of the rotor with the secondary windings, and the generated energy. As a result, the current strength and the output voltage increase accordingly.

In one of the machines created by the authors, which has four brushes and 20 plates and contains 20 sectors on the rotor, the primary windings consisted of several turns of conductor for effective rotation from 48 volts DC at 25 amperes. that is, 1200 watts were required to rotate at 1750 rpm.

At the same time, the secondary windings consisted of such a number of turns to effectively output 60 cycles per second (by conversion and generation) at 110 volts and 32 amperes, that is, the output could be 3520 watts.

Surprisingly, such a wonderful design of the converter of the machine by Robert Alexander - 1975 has disappeared from development, like the design of Nikola Tesla - in 1931. If you think logically, the possibility of the identity of these devices is obvious, just look at these figures:

Even Alexander's patent does not reveal the features of the complete design scheme. This diagram in a simplified version should definitely look like the figure below.

1-3 elements (battery, DC brushed motor, motor controller) are available in any electric vehicle. 4-5 elements (valve semiconductor rectifier, battery charge controller) are possible with an on-board AC power source. It was this scheme that was used on Alexander's electric car. In my opinion. Nikola Tesla had the same schematic diagram, the only thing he could not control the battery charging, from the alternating current phase on semiconductors. But it is possible to perform on the Fleming valves and on the gateway of the inductance controlled by an electromagnet. I think this "magic box" for Nikola Tesla was not a source. but a regulator.

It is logical that Robert Alexander repeated the combination with Nikola Tesla's electric car.


There is also interesting information about an electric car in which an atmospheric battery served as an energy source.

Denver Post (Monday, August 8, 1921)

Denver Man Invents Generator That Takes Electricity From Air & Propels Automobile

Believes He has Apparatus that will Revolutionize Power & Lighting & Gives it a Test on Streets of City

Has an invention been made that will revolutionize the electrical world? Will the apparatus conceived by a Denver man light buildings, run automobiles, battleships, power plants by the unlimited supply of electricity in the air? Denver electrical experts say "yes", and the young inventor, C. Earl Ammann, Monday demonstrated his invention by attaching it to an old automobile and running it about the city.

An atmospheric generator is the name of Ammann’s apparatus. It is a compact, cylindrical object with two small brass spheres protruding from the top. Inside, Ammann says, is an arrangement of steel wires and minerals, so fixed as to draw the electricity from the air, condense it and utilize it for driving power.

The automobile which Ammann used for his demonstration Monday was the body and chassis of an electric vehicle. There are said to be no batteries in the car. It propelled itself with remarkable speed at the touch of the foot, climbed hills and glided through a maze of traffic under easy control.

Careful To Conceal His Invention ~

When asked by skeptical persons if he had a storage battery concealed inside of the power cylinder, Ammann said:

"As badly as I would like to show the inside of my invention, I can’t, for I have not yet obtained the patent rights. It would be exposing the result of seven years of work to open the cylinder. I leave for Washington this week to obtain the patent rights. When I return I will gladly show everything and I can only say, wait until then and time will tell.

"I have bucked every law of the textbooks to perfect the invention. It appears on the order of the wireless telephone but it is decidedly different, except that the electricity is derived from the air. It will run anywhere except under water.

The automobile is only a simple test. The generator will light buildings, do away with steam turbines, and, in fact, propel any kind of engine motor".

J. N. Davis, the proprietor of the Davis Electric Garage company, at 921 East 14th Avenue, and one of the oldest electrical men in Denver, made a thorough study of the generator.

Electrical Man Has Faith In It ~

"I believe that Mr. Ammann has at least made the invention which will revolutionize power", Mr. Davis said. "Of course, we don’t know what is inside of the generator and the inventor would be foolish to show us. We have long known that certain minerals exist, which if properly arranged together, would furnish power. That, in substance, according to the blueprints of the invention, is the basis of the whole thing.

"If the generator has been perfected to the extent that it will propel an automobile, the rest of its work is assured. It will be the greatest invention of the age. The electricity obtained from the air, first passing through the generator, would be available for any use". So impressed was Mr. Davis that he offered the use of his building for Mr. Ammann’s headquarters. Ammann, who is but 28 years old, came to Denver from Spokane, Washington. He is an electrical engineer and lives at the Argonaut Hotel.

The mysterious device, possibly the device of the authors, was a kind of capacitor system, which, with a slight perturbation of the crystalline substance between the plates, created a difference in electrical potentials on these plates. Unfortunately, we will never know what device was the source of energy for these authors and in the Tesla car.

One thing I can say with certainty is that at that time an AC motor on a car, without an appropriate control controller, was not possible. Secondly, if Nikola Tesla had built a receiver of atmospheric electricity without grounding, then the operation would be based on fluctuation of pulses that clearly exceed the frequency of the AC mains for an AC motor. For an excellent source of AC voltage, there must also be an equally important frequency converter. It is for this reason that I am inclined to the version that the Tesla electric car was re-equipped with a DC motor, or a more powerful electric car was built on the basis of the named car. In any case, there was a source and a DC motor for an electric car.


This idea is capable of challenging the transportation we know today (another episode in the history of electric vehicles with an endless source of energy on board).

By creating the Tilly Foundation corporation in 2001, Carl Tilly set out to prove the reality of this idea. It was an ambitious idea that began to be carried out in a production facility in Tennessee, where it was supposed to create the first self-generating electric machine. Construction on the 1,800-square-foot building, powered by a newly developed electrical device, began in 2002. No external power supply was required to supply the building with electricity. Ironically, on the basis of one alternative energy device, it was possible to develop an invention that formed the basis for the creation of an electric machine. Compared to gasoline vehicles, the Tilly Vehicle (TEV) exhibits more advanced technology. The difference is that there is no need for fuel, and there is no need to stop to recharge the battery after driving. No pollution occurs, and you can travel the roads at the same speed as any other car.

The installed electric motor produces over 130 horsepower at 5500 rpm. This machine has a three-speed automatic transmission that runs smoothly and is completely silent. For quick trouble-free braking, the machine is equipped with four braking wheel discs. Counterweighted wing doors require only 14 inches of clearance. The tilting sports sunroof is dynamically designed in such a way that braking effects are virtually eliminated. All of these components, along with the use of a flawless steel hull, make for a magnificent machine.

Thanks to the control center of the power supply, everything necessary is done to ensure that the batteries remain charged during the operation of the machine, regardless of the speed or degree of vacuum of the power supply. Your energy system will be charged for as long as you use it. You just need to get in the car, start it and drive like any other.

The 1981 DeLorean was converted to Tilly's electric car. Alteration of the car began at the end of June 2002. Work on the metal assembly, namely the development of the electric motor support, the installation of the power supply, the control center and the TEV device, was completed in July 2002. In order to verify the effectiveness of TEV technology, several tests were carried out. One of the last tests was done on September 7, 2002. As a result, after driving the car for 17.3 miles on the superhighway at 80 to 90 mph, an independent expert confirmed that the batteries remained fully charged.

  On March 28, 2003, in the state of Tennessee, USA, 20 armed men confiscated all devices, documents and bank accounts of Tilly Foundation, Inc. So far, they have not returned anything or reimbursed the costs, said Carl Tilly, president and owner of the company. In order to protect the technology, just a week after the action, he had already begun building another electric car and two power sources for mansions. Now it's happening in another state. The latest electric car has been tested by several engineers and received a positive result.

Academic physics does not explain how the armature magnetic field takes part in the transformation (the explanation above does not stand up to criticism, since this is an explanation of the operation of the transformer, but the magnetic flux in the transformer core does not decrease when the current is formed in the secondary circuit). Why is there no rotor reaction in the mindformer? There are counter currents in the windings of the primary and secondary circuits, only as in a transformer or imposing frames (Alexander's drawing). The Umformer operates as a DC motor, there is no reverse torque load on the shaft. And switching in the motor windings generates an alternating current in the primary circuit Mutual inductance cannot be more than one a priori. The question arises, who tried to connect the umformer as an electric motor to form a moment on the shaft? For example, we can see the turns of the umformer anchor in this video. As an option, use the design of a DC motor with a secondary winding placed at the armature to the excitation winding of the motor. Some part in this variant can be recuperated, but this is not the episode that is indicated in the explanation of the design of Robert Alexander. But the fact of the demonstration took place. The question - could not or did not want to explain the design features remained behind the scenes.

What principle did Carl Tilly use in his source of electricity? There is some information with explanation.

This new generating device utilizes the generation of static electricity rather than cutting off magnetic fields, which has been common practice today.

This prototype generator powered the home of the inventor (Carl Tilly) for three years.

Existing magnetic flux generators have an efficiency of about 80% of the energy used to rotate the generator's armature to generate electricity. Losses in the efficiency of the boiler and in the steam turbine that turns the armature increase the total energy loss to about 50% of the raw energy of the fuel used.


There is another episode from 1959 from the Soviet Union. In the city of Leningrad (St. Petersburg), engineer-architect Leonid Stovbunenko converted his passenger car into an electric car in December 1959. He invited a journalist from the city's youth newspaper. testify to the operation of your electric vehicle. The electric motor of the converted car was powered by two starting car batteries. Leonid and the journalist drove all day, and after the trip, the battery charge remained undischarged. The article written by the journalist was not published. But the reaction of the authorities was very harsh. All developments of electromechanical devices by Leonid Stabuneno were classified by the decision of the Commission of the Military-Industrial Complex of the USSR. Leonid Stovbunekno is a developer of a gear motor, a modern stepper motor with embossed poles and an armature/rotor.

We can neither confirm nor deny the reason for the unique operation of the motor and the onboard energy source, the 1959 Stovbunenko electric car, which, when the vehicle is traveling, the result shows autonomous operation while maintaining the battery charge. What design was the reason for giving secrecy, it is likely that the ability to generate energy without cost.

The material contains information that can give you a creative impulse to create an autonomous onboard source of electricity.

Another episode of the time when Tesla's electric car was demonstrated.

New York Times (Wednesday, March 7, 1928) 

Priest Has Motor Run By 'Ion Energy'

Jesuit Inventor From Brazil Is Here To market Product, Now Undergoing Patent Tests ~ Not A Fuelless Machine ~ "Inter-Atomic" Force Increases Electric Battery power, He Says -- Discounts Hendershot Claims

An Italian Jesuit priest from Brazil announced here yesterday that he had invented a motor that makes use of "interatomic" energy to generate many times the power it receives originally from an electric battery. The motor is now at Washington, where it is undergoing the Patent Office investigation.

The priest is the Rev. Antonio d’Angelo, S.J., a stocky, earnest little man who combines missionary work in Brazil with tinkering in his own electrical laboratory. He speaks no English, but told of his machine through his brother, Biagio d’Angelo of 1475 LeLand Ave., the Bronx.

Father d’Angelo became interested in electricity 20 years ago when he was a student at a Jesuit seminary in Naples. A year and a half ago he was sent out by his Order to Brazil to carry on missionary work at Ribeirao Preto among the Italian emigrants. He had to get a special dispensation from Bishop Alberto Gonzales of Ribeirao Preto to visit the United States where, so his brother had written him, fortune comes more easily to the man with a money-saving device. He came here in November 1927, and has urged his Bishop to extend his leave of six months.

The missionary priest does not believe in the Hendershot "fuelless motor".

"I challenge anyone", he said yesterday, "to use the magnetic field of the earth for running a motor. The energy from that would be too small".

His motor, he said, could be used in the home to supply electric lighting cheaply, and even heating. He said that it could be used to run trains, airplanes and automobiles.

Father d’Angelo had a plan of his motor with him yesterday. He showed how it started to develop energy from an electric battery, and how this original impulse worked on the machine to generate many times its power through the "electricity produced by the inter-atomic energy of the ions".

Popular Science Monthly (July 1928, p. 26)

US Patent # 2,021,177 /Motor Generator & Other Transformer/ Antonio d'Angelo

So what kind of power source was on Tesla's electric car, and was it possible to drive an AC motor on an electric car at that time?

Best regards, Serge Rakarskiy 

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